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双语热点:我们为何喜欢听悲伤的歌曲******

我们喜欢这种伤感的音乐并不是理所当然的。悲伤通常是我们试图避免的一种情绪,这种音乐在我们的耳朵里应该是令人沮丧和不愉快的。然而事实上,悲伤的音乐让我们沉浸其中,并使我们振作起来。但是为什么听悲伤的音乐会让我们感觉这么好呢?

Why We Like Sad Songs

On November 19th it came out 30, the new album by Adele. Last month hundreds of millions of people had streamed her first single, Easy on me. This song evokes feelings that are not easy to put into words. But we can perhaps agree that this is a sad song.

阿黛尔的新专辑《30》于11月19日面世了。上个月,数亿人在线收听了她的首发单曲Easy On Me。这首歌唤起了我们难以用语言表达的情感。但我们或许可以同意,这是一首悲伤的歌曲。

It is not a given that we like this kind of music. Sadness is usually a feeling we try to avoid, this kind of music should be depressing and unpleasant to our ears. Instead it attracts us and cheers us up. But why does listening to sad music make us feel so good?

我们喜欢这种伤感的音乐并不是理所当然的。悲伤通常是我们试图避免的一种情绪,这种音乐在我们的耳朵里应该是令人沮丧和不愉快的。然而事实上,悲伤的音乐让我们沉浸其中,并使我们振作起来。但是为什么听悲伤的音乐会让我们感觉这么好呢?

Let’s start with biological theories. When we experience loss firsthand or empathize with the pain of others, our body releases hormones such as prolactin and oxytocin that help us cope with emptiness and pain, because they make us feel calm, comforted and supported.

让我们先从生物学理论开始讲。当我们亲身体验失落或体会到他人的痛苦时,我们的体内会释放催乳素和催产素等激素,帮助我们应对空虚和痛苦,因为它们让我们有平静、被安慰和被支持的感觉。

Perceiving Adele’s pain, or remembering ours, can trigger these chemical reactions within us.

感受到阿黛尔传达的痛苦,或回忆我们自己的痛苦,都可能会导致我们体内发生这种化学变化。

But on this the verdict is not unanimous. According to a study, there is no evidence that sad music causes prolactin levels to rise. Other research, on the other hand, suggests that prolactin and oxytocin help make sad music give us a feeling of well-being.

但在这一点上,观点并不一致。有研究指出,并没有证据表明悲伤的音乐会导致催乳素水平升高。但也有其他研究表明,催乳素和催产素有助于使悲伤的音乐给我们带来幸福感。

The psychology of sad music

悲伤音乐的心理学作用

One of the main reasons we love sad songs is that they “move” us deeply. This experience is sometimes called kama muta, a Sanskrit term that means “moved by love”. Being moved can involve chills, goosebumps, a flood of emotions, heat in the chest and euphoria.

我们喜欢悲伤歌曲的一个关键原因是,它们能深深地“感动”我们。这种体验有时被称为kama muta,这是一个梵文术语,意思是“被爱感动”。人们被歌曲感动时可能会颤栗、起鸡皮疙瘩、情绪泛滥、心口温热和欢欣鼓舞。

But why are we moved? The American writer James Baldwin came to this conclusion: “The things that tormented me most were the very things that united me with all the people who were alive, and all those who had been.” Likewise, commotion can come from suddenly feeling closer to others.

但为什么我们会被感动?美国作家詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)认为:“让我最痛苦的事情,恰好也是将我与所有活着的人,以及所有曾经活着的人,联系在一起的事情。”同样,“被感动”可能是因为我们突然感觉与他人更亲近。

This may be why the people most likely to be moved by sad music are also those who have a high level of empathy. Indeed, after listening 30 we could search online for gods reaction video – videos released online showing how people react to TV series, movies, songs – to see how other listeners feel. This allows us to share an emotional experience, and sharing a feeling with a community of people increases the emotion and triggers a sense of belonging and comfort.

这或许可以解释,为什么最容易被悲伤音乐感动的人,正是那些具有高度同理心的人。事实上,当我们听了专辑《30》之后,可能会去看一些“反应视频”(视频中会记录人们对电视剧,电影和歌曲的反应)来了解其他人听过的感受。这让我们与他人分享了这些动情的体验。与一群人分享一种感觉会增加情感并引发归属感和舒适感。

A suggestion somehow related to this reasoning is that Adele’s sad music can function as a friend and act as a social surrogate. Sad music can be an imaginary friend who supports and empathizes with us after a loss.

与这种推理有某种联系的一个建议是,阿黛尔的悲伤音乐可以起到朋友的作用,也可以起到社交的作用。悲伤的音乐可以是一个想象中的朋友,可以在我们情绪失落时提供心理上的支持和同情。

The emotion can also be triggered by the memory of important moments in our life. Adele’s songs are very nostalgic. So in reality it could be nostalgia, and not sadness, the emotion that makes us feel good.

或者,感动也可能源于歌曲触发了我们生命中重要时刻的记忆。阿黛尔的歌曲具有强烈的怀旧感。我们在其中享受的可能是旧日的回忆,而不是悲伤。

In fact, only 25 percent of people who listen to this genre of music say they feel sad. Others experience different emotions, often related, and most of the time nostalgia: a feeling that contributes to the growth of our sense of social connection, to mitigate the feeling that things do not make sense and to reduce anxiety.

事实上,当人们听伤感的音乐时,只有约25%的人真的会感到悲伤。其余人感受到的,通常是相关的各种情绪,最常见的是怀旧。这种怀旧情绪有助于增强我们与社会的联系,消除空虚和焦虑感。

A completely different kind of psychological theory holds that songs like Adele’s are emotional training grounds, safe and controlled spaces where we can explore a simulation of sadness. In short, the emotional equivalent of Neo training with Morpheus in the film Matrix.

还有一种完全不同的心理学理论是,阿黛尔的歌曲相当于“情绪锻炼室”,为我们提供了一个安全、可控的空间,让我们可以在其中体会、探索悲伤的感受。简单说,这就类似于《黑客帝国》电影中尼奥(Neo)与墨菲斯(Morpheus)在练功房的切磋。

Simulated sadness allows us to experience and learn. We can improve our empathy, learn to see things better from the perspective of others, and try to react to sadness, so that we can be a little more prepared when we find ourselves facing a difficult time in our life. These instructive experiences may have evolved to be enjoyable and easier to use.

“情绪健身房”让我们体验悲伤的情绪并从中学习。听歌时,我们产生更多的同理心,学会了从他人的角度更好地看待事物,也尝试对悲伤做出反应。这样当我们面临生活中真正的困难时期时,可以多一点准备。这些具有指导意义的体验可能已经演变为令人愉快且更易于使用的体验。

It is also possible that Adele’s songs are not liked because they are sad or nostalgic, but simply because they are beautiful. Sadness could therefore coincide with beauty. There are those who argue that witnessing virtuous actions or something beautiful can touch us, move us and inspire us.

也有可能阿黛尔的歌不是因为悲伤或怀旧而被喜欢,而仅仅是因为它们很美。因此,悲伤可能与美丽相吻合。有些人认为,看到美的行为或事物可以触动我们、感动我们并激励我们。

And then we can take into consideration the cultural aspect: Adele in her songs talks about difficult experiences and helps us to get over it. That’s exactly what tragic art does: it takes the pain, suffering and sadness of the world and gives them meaning. As the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche said: “Who has a because to live can endure almost any come”.

我们也可以从文化层面思考,阿黛尔在她的歌曲中讲述了艰难的经历并帮助我们克服它。这正是悲剧艺术所实现的价值:它带走了世界的痛苦、苦难和悲伤,并赋予它们意义。正如德国哲学家弗里德里希·尼采 (Friedrich Nietzsche) 所说:“一个人知道自己为什么而活,就能忍受任何生活”。

In short, Adele’s songs can have a different meaning for each of us. We listen to sad music when we want to reflect, feel part of a community or relax. We listen to it to experience beauty, to receive comfort or to abandon ourselves to memories.

总而言之,阿黛尔的歌曲可能对我们每个人都有不同的意义。当我们想要回忆些什么,获得归属感或放松下来时,我们就会听悲伤的音乐。我们感受美,获得安慰,或追忆过去,。

But what Adele’s songs tell everyone is: you are not alone in your pain. They allow us to feel his pain, to share our suffering and to connect with other people from the past and present. And beauty is contained in the sharing of our humanity.

阿黛尔的歌曲告诉我们每个人:你的痛苦并不孤单。我们在歌声中感受到她的痛苦,分享自己的挣扎,与他人过去和现在的悲伤联系在一起,产生共鸣。在人性中,分享的体验永远是美好的。

西安市消协发布2022年十大消费警示:预付式消费有风险******

  一年一度的“3‧15国际消费者权益日”即将到来,为帮助广大消费者有效规避消费陷阱和消费风险,西安市消协根据近期的投诉内容发布了2022年十大消费警示,提醒消费者科学消费。

  警示一 打折促销要当心 拒买来历不明商品

  遇到打折促销活动时,要保持理性,按需消费,充分了解活动规则,不要过度贪图便宜,主动拒绝购买来历不明的商品。

  警示二  预付式消费有风险 谨慎购买多防范

  遇到预付式消费时,一定要谨慎选择商家,理性办卡, 要与商家签订书面合同,保留维权证据。

  警示三 电视网络购物有隐患 抵住诱惑防被骗

  电视购物时,不要轻信电视网络广告,多比较查验,理性购买。电视购物尽量选择货到付款,注意索要凭证,保存好相关信息,用好“七日无理由退货”权利。

  警示四 购买保健食品 警惕销售套路

  购买保健食品时,请选正规渠道,认准“蓝帽子”标志。如有疑问,可登陆国家市场监管总局网站核验产品真假。

  警示五 购买汽车要当心 口头承诺勿轻信

  购买汽车不要轻信口头承诺,要与商家签订详细合同,多了解汽车的“三包”等规定,在预付定金时也要谨慎。

  警示六 提防旅游低价陷阱 拒绝强制购物

  外出旅游,一定要选择信誉好的正规旅行社,警惕低于成本价的旅游项目,拒绝强制购物。

  警示七  慎重签订租房合同 谨防误入黑中介陷阱

  租房请选正规房屋中介,慎重签订租房合同,保留证据依法维权。

  警示八 房屋装修陷阱多 小心谨慎避踩坑

  装修房屋慎选装修公司,注意低价、全包诱惑,要与商家签订正规装修合同,切忌一次性付全款;

  警示九 教育培训藏“猫腻” 理智甄别保权益

  选择正规培训机构,认真查看协议约定条款,理性对待营销宣传,避免一次性高额缴费,谨防网络培训陷阱。

  警示十 警惕“盲盒经济” 杜绝“赌博式”蔓延

  面对“盲盒经济”,消费者一定要量力而行,不要过分沉迷,避免成瘾。

  市消协提醒广大消费者,当合法权益受到侵害时,请及时与经营者协商解决。协商未果的情况下,保存好相关证据材料,拨打12315热线投诉举报。

  华商报记者 李婧



来源:华商网-华商报

编辑:方正

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Slovan Bratislava bids farewell to Europa Conference League******

BRATISLAVA, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) -- Slovan Bratislava bid farewell to the UEFA Europa Conference League after a 2-0 defeat by FC Copenhagen in the final round of the group stage, placing third in the final Group F standings.。

Copenhagen placed first with 15 points from five victories and advanced to the round of 16. The Greek FC PAOK finished second after edging out Gibraltar's Lincoln Red Imps 2-0 on Thursday.。

FC Copenhagen entered the final round having secured first place already in the previous round. Plagued by injures, the Danish team had to call upon players from its junior team and put six of them on the starting roster. Despite facing inexperienced players, the visitors from Slovakia were unable to achieve the much-needed victory.。

FC Copenhagen opened the score in the 30th minute when the 18-year-old Hakon Haraldsson took the ball towards the box through the middle and passed it back to Jonas Wind who placed his shot well near the right post and it ended in the back of the net.。

Slovan Bratislava had just one solid scoring opportunity in the first half but Jurij Medvedev's shot got saved by the home team's goalkeeper.。

Early in the second half, Wind stripped the visiting midfielder Jaba Kankava off the ball, sent a center pass into the box and the ball got to Rasmus Hojlund who stretched the lead to 2-0.。

Slovan coach Vladimir Weiss Sr. sent in fresh players to try to rally after that but to no avail, and the score remained unchanged.。

"The European teams showed us where we have to improve, what mistakes we are making," said Weiss Sr. after the final whistle. "Modern football is about speed and dynamic play. We have to think faster than in our Fortuna Liga, we have to defend better and underestimate no detail." Enditem。

刘强东性侵案起诉书中文版全文曝光 其被控6项罪名******

(原标题:刘强东性侵犯案起诉书被曝光 女生提出六项指控)

姬雪莹本文来源:北京头条 责任编辑:姬雪莹_NN6784

孔蒂和图赫尔,联袂献上新赛季第一场大戏

1.火箭军某旅打破建制营壁垒 一营的尖子教会了六营的兵

2.特朗普律师:若特朗普赢得大选,会把拜登每一间房都抄了

3.记者:瓦伦西亚将向索莱尔提供续约合同,球员与加图索关系很好

4.女星红毯:姚晨造型被吐槽,刘亦菲像公主

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